РУП Институт плодоводства

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THE NATURAL CONDITIONS OF BELARUS AND FRUIT GROWING LOCATION

The nature of Belarus is determined by its territory location on the west of the Russian plain, between latitude 51 and 56° North and longitude 23 and 33° East, in temperate zone on the way of air mass movement from the Atlantic. The climate is temperate and continental and it is characterized by warm and damp winter, comparatively cool and rainy summer, wet autumn and sunny but broken weather in spring.

The average air temperatures of Belarus latitude in January in the south-west are -4.5 °C but in the north-east are -8.5 °C. July temperatures are 3-4 °C higher and in the north they reach +17 degrees and in the south – +19.7 degrees. The absolute maximum of the air temperature (+38 °C) was marked in the south-east of Belarus but the absolute minimum (-44 °C) was marked in the north-east. Severe winters happen one in 10-15 years. The amount of active temperatures is reduced from 2500 degrees in the south-west to 2000 ones in the north-east. Frost-free period lasts 150-180 and 140-150 days, respectively. In the central and north-eastern parts of Belarus the number of precipitations during the year is 600-650 mm and less on the territory of Polesje.

Sometimes during dry years the precipitation is less than 300 mm but during wet years they may be more than 1000 mm.

The natural conditions of Belarus give an opportunity to grow all major fruit and small fruit crops and in the south and south-west also it is possible to grow grape, apricot and walnut. There are three fruit zones in the Republic (see the scheme): the northern part (1), central one (2) and southern one (3). In the range of central and southern zones two subzones are singled out: a western one (A) and an eastern one (B). All major plantations of fruit and small fruit crops are focused in the most favorable conditions for them and they are linked with raw materials zones of processing enterprises which there are more than 70 ones in the Republic.

 

© Institute for Fruit Growing, 2018